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Accoutrer to Zythepsarist - who are they?

Updated: Mar 8, 2018

We started to wonder what it would have been like when it was possible to bring light into dark work places in the city - people and places that were rarely seen in the light of day.


Whilst researching the types of trades that would have been going on in the city we came across this amazing list of of obscure occupations on a genealogy website: World Through The Lens.

We used it as the inspiration for our spoken word piece in the video 'Came the Light'.


ACCOUTRER Someone who supplied dress or trappings equipment - i.e. the equipment of a solider other ALABASTERER A person works with alabaster  ALCHEMIST A medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold   ALMONER The person who distributed alms or charity to the poor on behalf of the parish  AMBER CUTTER A person who cuts ambergris which is an ash coloured odorous substance used in perfumery.  ANCHORSMITH A person who made anchors for boats and ships  ANNATTO MAKER Someone who worked in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing, using dye from annatto. This is a dye, yellow or orange in colour and was gained from the achiote trees found in Latin American and the Caribbean.  ANTIGROPELOS MAKER A person who made waterproof leggings   ARCHIL MAKER Someone who used lichens to make a violet-coloured dye to use in the textile industry.  ARKWRIGHT A skilled craftsman who produced wooden chests or coffers (Arks)  ARMOURER A person who made suits of armour or plates of armour for buildings or ships etc.   AUGER MAKER Someone who made the carpenters augers (used for boring holes in wood) 

BACK WASHER Employed to clean the wool in the worsted manufacturing industry  BAL MAIDEN or PIT BROW LASS A female mine worker who worked on the surface  BALANCER The person, usually a boy, who operated the balance - a pulley where full tubs were pulled up a slope in a mine and emptied  BARKMAN Anyone who tanned leather using the bark of trees.  BASIL WORKER Workers who used bark to tan the skins of lambs and sheep. The leather was called basil  BAYWEAVER or BAIZEWEAVER One who wove bay - a fine woollen fabric also known as baize  BEATER Cleansed and thickened the cloth by treading it underwater with fullers earth (sedimentary clay rich in minerals). Also a man employed to rouse game.  BEDMAN Sexton whose main job in the church was to dig the graves  BEDWEVERE Made the webbing for bed frames and also one who wove quilts  BEETLER Operated a beetling machine, used in the textile trade for embossing fabric  BILLIER or BILLYMAN Operated a Billy Roller, a machine used in the cotton industry to prepare the cotton for spinning  BLACKSMITH Is a person who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal. They produce objects such as gates, tools, agricultural implements, cooking utensils and weapons.  BLADESMITH Swordmaker or knife maker  BLEACHER A bleacher of cloth or paper pulp  BLOWFEEDER Fed the fibres into a blowing machine in the textile industry  BLUE MAKER Used or made blue dye for whitening fabrics in manufacture or washing (Dolly blue)  BOBBIN CARRIER Worked in spinning and weaving sections of the mills  BOBBIN TURNER Made the bobbins used in the spinning and weaving industry  BOLL One who looked after power looms in the weaving industry  BONE BUTTON TURNER Made buttons using a lathe  BONE LACE MAKER A person who made pillow lace. Also known as bobbin lace  BONESETTER A 'surgeon' - non qualified practitioner who sets fractured and dislocated bones  BONIFACE Keeper of an inn  BOOKMAN A literary man. A lover of reading. Student.  BOOT CATCHER A servant at an inn who pulled off traveller's boots  BOOT CLOSER Worked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe  BOOTBINDER Employed to operate the machines which bound footware  BORRELER Made borrel, a woollen cloth with a coarse feel  BOTCHER A mender or a patcher  BOWKER A person who bleached yarn. English (chiefly Manchester) occupational name for someone whose job was to steep cotton or linen in lye (a strong alkali) to cleanse it. A local term in some parts of Lancashire for a butcher or slaughterer  BOWLMINDER In charge of the vats used for washing raw wool before processing  BRAIDER Made cord by twisting threads or strips of leather.  BRAILLER Made girdles  BRASILER Dyer using the dye obtained from the Brazilian red wood tree  BROWDERER or BROIDERER Embroiderer  BUCK WASHER A person who used to wash or soak clothes or cloth in lye (buck) - a bleaching agent. E.g BUCKLESMITH Made buckles  BUCKRAM MAKER Worked with buckram (a coarse linen cloth stiffen ed with glue) used in stiffening materials such as belts, lapels and collars  BUDDLER or BUDDLEBOY Employed to use and maintain the vats used in the lead and tin mines - washes the ore  BUMMAREE Middle man between the wholesaler and the retailer at the fish markets (eg Billingsgate, London)  BUNTER Female rag & bone collector  BURLER A dresser of cloth. Removes small knots or lumps in cloth or thread. In the process of fulling.  BURNISHER A person who polishes or makes glossy  BUTTON-MAKER Button maker

CADDY or CADDIE One who waits about for chances to do odd jobs. Errand boy. Messenger  CADGER A market man, peddler or huskster. Beggar  CAIRD Another term for a tinker  CALCINER Burnt bones to make powdered lime (Reduced by heat)  CALENDARER A person who complies lists  CALENDERER or CALENDERMAN or CALENDER WORKER Operated a machine (a calender) which pressed cloths or paper between two large rollers in order to makes them smooth and glossy.  CALICO PRINTER A person who prints figured patterns on calico  CAMBIST A banker specialising in exchange rates  CAMBRIC MAKER A maker a fine linen (cambric)  CAMLET or KAMLET MERCHANT Seller of camlet, a costly fabric of satin weave made in Asia of camel's or goat's hair or angora wool  CANAL BANK RANGER Looked after a section and all aspects of the canal waterways eg locks, barges, canal traffic, licences, etc. A towpath warden  CANDLE MAKER On who made and sold candles  CANDLER One who candles eggs  CANER or CAINER Made walking sticks  CANER or CHAIR BOTTOMER Made the seats for chairs out of woven cane  CANNONEER Man who fires a cannon. A solider who serves as a gunner  CANON or CANONESS A member of the chapter of a cathedral. One of the bishop's associate council.  CANTER One who uses cant as a beggar.  CANTING CALLER Auctioneer  CANVAS CLIMBER A sailor  CANVAS MAKER A person who made canvases a course cloth made from hemp. Used for sails, tents, paintings, tapestries.  CANVASER A person whose job is to solict peoples opinions, votes or orders  CAP MAKER Made caps usually worn by the working class  CAPILLAIRE MAKER Person who made capillaire, which is a clear syrup flavoured with orange flower water. Capillaire is added by confectioners to their products.  CAPITALIST Investor. Person of large property.  CAPTAIN In charge of a ship or a group of soldiers and also term for an overseer  CARD NAILER or NAILORA Maintained the teeth (nails) on the carding machine used for preparing wool and cotton for weaving  CARDER Operated or tended machines to prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment.  CARDMAKER A maker of cards or instruments for combing wool  CARDROOMER or CARD ROOM WORKER Term for anyone who worked in the carding room of the mills  CARETAKER Takes care of another's property  CARMAN Drove a vehicle used to transport goods  CARNIFEX Public executioner  CARRY-IN-BOY Took finished bottled (products) to the tempering oven  CART WHEELER OR WHEELWRIGHT Made cart wheels  CARTER Carries or conveys goods in a cart  CARTOGRAPHER A map maker  CARTOMANCER Fortune teller who used cards (USA)  CARTWRIGHT Maker of carts and wagons  CASE MAKER Maker of ornamental/ jewellery cases. Often worked in shagreen leather (Shagreen - leather prepared from the skin of horses, asses, mules)  CASEMAN Amongst printers one who works at the case, or sets up type. A compositor  CASTER One who casts. One who casts in metal. One who mades small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar etc. One who assigns the parts of a play to the actors. One who calculates fortunes. One who computes.  CASTRATOR or GELDER One who castrated farm animals -  CATAGMAN or COTTAGER A tenant who leased a cottage and plot of land where they grew their own produce and often kept a small amount of livestock.  CATCHPOLE or CATCHPOLLA A sheriff's officer or sergeant, especially one who makes arrests for debt. A bailiff  CATECHISTA A teacher of religion  CATTLE JOBBER Buys and sells cattle  CATTLE-MAN One who tends or raises cattles  CAULKER or CALKER Filled up cracks (in ships or windows) or seams to make them watertight  CEILER Puts up the ceilings in buildings  CELLARMAN Looked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses or the warehouse  CHAFFERER Negotiator  CHAIR BODGER Traveling chair repairman  CHAISE MAKER Made or assembled carts and carriages  CHAMBER MASTER A small master who makes up material at home and sells goods to the shops. (e.g. Shoes, clothes, bric-a-brac)  CHAMBERLAIN A steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household. Or a treasurer.  CHAMBERMAID A female servant attending to bedrooms in houses or inns (domestic Service)  CHANDLER A candle seller, grocer, provisioner, usually associated with small wares. Usually associated with ship provisions - SHIPS CHANDLER  CHAPEL MASTER Head of a chapel of printers  CHAPELER Made and sold hats  CHAPERONE A matron who attends a young lady in public places for protection or propriety  CHAPMAN or COPEMAN or PETTY CHAPMAN or CEAPMAN A dealer or peddler of goods usually itinerant going from village to village. Often sold fabrics such as wool and cotton. Peddler or hawker  CHARCOAL BURNER Made charcoal from wood - usually in the woods where the trees were cut  CHARGER One employed in charging or discounting money  CHARLEY or CHARLIE A night watchman  CHARWOMAN or CHORE WOMAN Cleaning woman (Domestic service) who usually worked for hourly wages, often on a part-time basis. They usually had several different employers and unike maids, did not 'live-in'.  CHAUNTER A street entertainer who sung ballads (Busker)  CHECK-TAKER A taker of tickets  CHECKWEIGHMAN Employed by a group of miners paid piecework (by the ton mined) to check coal weight recorded by the mine management  CHEESE FACTOR or CHEESEMAN or CHEESE MONGER A dealer in cheeses  CHIFFONIER A rag picker / gatherer  CHILDBED LINEN WAREHOUSE KEEPER or DEALER Hired bedlinen mostly for childbirth as most children were born at home  CHIMNEY SWEEP Chimney cleaner -In Victorian times he would usually employ young children to ascend the chimneys  CHINGLER or SHINGLER Roofer - who used wooden shingles  CHIP or CHIPPY Shipwright or carpenter  CHIPPERS LABOURER Assistant to a carpenter  CHIROPODIST Treats diseases and conditions of the feet and hands  CHIRUGION or CHIRURGEON Apothecary or surgeon (usually learned by apprenticeship)  CHORISTER A singer - usually in a choir  CHRONOLOGIST Recorded official events of historical importance  CINDER WENCH Female who collected the cinders from gas works and sold them door to door  CLARK Clerk  CLAY CARRIER Assistant to the shot firer in the pits  CLAYMAN or CLEYMAN Worked in the clay pits usually preparing the clay for making bricks and also one who coated the outside of buildings with clay to make them water proof  CLERICUS Clerk or clergyman  CLERK Clergyman or cleric  CLICKER The servant of a salesman who stands at the door to invite customer in. Worked in the shoe trade cutting out the lowers. One in charge of the final stage of layout before printing  CLIPPER Attached the coal carts to the wire or rope which was used to drag the carts to and from the coal face. Sheep shearer. A person who clips - e.g. Chips edges of coin  CLOD HOPPER Plowman (rustic) A clown  CLOGGER Maker of wooden shoes - clogs  CLOISTRESS A nun  CLOTH LAPPER Took the cloth from the carding machine readied it for the next process  CLOTH LINTER or CLOTH PICKER Removed unwanted threads and lint from the finished material             CLOUTER Made nails and another name for a shoemaker  COACHMAN or COACHER or COACH DRIVER Drove any coach  COAL BACKER Carried the sacks of coal from the coal barge to the coal wagons. A coal porter at ship docks  COAL DRAWER Worked in the mines pushing or dragging the coal carts to the bottom of the pit  COAL FITTER Conducts the sales between the owner of a coal pit and coal merchant  COAL GETTER One employed in digging, or in getting out by digging. Miner who worked at the coal face  COAL HEAVER Unloaded coal  COAL RUNNER Attended the coal carts underground  COAL WHIPPER Unloaded coal from ships using baskets attached to a simple form of crane  COALER One who makes a business supplying or transporting coal  COALMAN or COAL MERCHANT or COAL HIGGLER Sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house.  COALMETER One appointed to measure the coal  COAST SURVEYOR or WAITER Customs officer who watched over the off loading of goods on the coast  COASTAL-PILOT A pilot who conducted vessels along the coast  COASTGUARD A body of men employed to prevent smuggling around the coast, now also to provide rescuie services at sea (mainly)  COBBLER Shoemaker  COBLEMAN A fisherman who used a flat bottomed boat  COD PLACER Put fire proof containers, which held the pottery for firing, into the kiln  CODDER A gatherer of cods or pease  COINER Worked at the mint stamping out coins  COLLAR MAKER Made either horse collars or male shirt collars  COLLIER Coal miner, a coal merchant or one who worked on the coal barges  COLOUR MAN Preparer and seller of colours. Mixed the dyes in the textile trade and also assistant to a house painter  COLOUR SERGEANT Chief sergeant of a company  COLOURATOR or COLORATORA Worked with dyes  COLPORTEUR Travelling Bible or religious books and pamphlets salesman  COMB MAKER Made combs either for the textile industry for combing wool etc. or the maker of hair combs  COMBER or COMBERE Combed wool during preparation  COMPOSITOR Set the type ready for printing  CONDER or CONNER Gave steering instructions to the steersman and also gave directions to inshore fisherman of fish movements on shoals (usually from the top of cliffs or rocks)  CONEY or CONY CATCHER Rabbit catcher  CONFECTIONER Sweet / candy maker  CONNER Inspector or tester  COOPER or CUPER Maker of wooden barrels  COPEMAN or COPER Dealer in goods and also dishonest dealer. A marketman. Coper - is also a dealer in horses on a limited scale  COPPERBEATER or COPPERBETER Coppersmith  COPPERSMITH Worked with copper. Made household and jewellery items from copper  CORACLE MAKER Made coracles, a small round boat used for fishing  CORDINER or CORDWAINER or CORVINER or CORVISOR Originally term used for one who worked with Cordovan (a special leather from Spain) but later term used for shoemaker  CORK SOCK MAKER A cutter of inner soles of cork for shoes, helping to keep feet dry and comfortable.  CORPORAL Lowest none-commissioned officer  COSTER WIFE Female fruit seller  COSTERMONGER Fruit seller  COTILER or COLOTIER or COLETER Maker of Cutlery. Cutler. A knife seller or sharpner  COTTAGER A rural labourer  COTTER or COTTAR In Scotland a peasant occupying a small holding  COTTIER A peasant cottager  COUPER A trader in commodities / goods (In Scotland)  COUPLER A man or boy who worked on the haulage system coupling tubs together in mines  COURANTEER A Journalist  COW LEECH (LEACH) Forerunner of a cattle vet  COWHERDER Cow tender  COWKEEPER Kept one or more cows (a common source of livelihood in cities) when a cow was kept in the back yard of a house, providing milk which was sold at the front door or window, forerunner of the local dairy  COXWAIN or COXSWAIN Ship or boat helmsman  CRATCH MAKER Made cratches e.g. mangers, cribs, or frames  CRIER Law court officer, auctioneer, town announcer  CRIMPER Member of army or navy press gang. One who decoys people to a place where they are robbed or pressed into service.  CROCKER Potter  CROFTER Tenant of a small piece of land  CROPPER or SHARE CROPPER A tenant who works land in return for a share of the yield.  CROSIER or CROZIER Bearer of the pastoral staff of a bishop or the bearer of the cross before the archbishop in the church  CROWNER Coroner  CULVER A person who kept pigeons  CURER Cures various foodstuff (eg ham, fish, tobacco)  CURRIER A man who dresses and colours leather after it is tanned.  CUTLER Knife seller or sharpener 

DAGUERREOTYPIST Early name for a photographer using silver plate (from the Daguerreotype method)  DAIRYMAN Worker or owner of a dairy farm or seller of dairy products  DAMSTER Builder of dams for logging purposes  DANTER Female overseer in the winding rooms of a silk mill  DAY MAN Casual worker, usually employed by the day  DEATHSMAN Executioner  DECOYMAN Employed to decoy the wild fowl, animals etc into a trap or within shooting range  DELVER Someone who used a spade . E.g. Dug ditches  DEPUTY Safety officer for the pit crew in the mining industry  DERRICKMAN Worked on an oil well handling the tubes and rods used in drilling  DEVILLER Operated the devil, a machine that tore rags used in the textile industry  DEY WIFE Female dairy worker  DIKEMAN or DYKEMAN Hedger or ditcher. Digger of dykes and drainage ditches  DIPPER One who worked in the pottery trade and was responsible for the glazing of items  DISH TURNER One who made wooden bowls or dishes  DISTILLER Brewer of alcoholic beverages  DOCK MASTER Person in charge of a dockyard  DOCKER or DOCK WALLOPER dock worker, longshoreman  DOCTOR'S MAN Person who went from house to house collecting owed doctor's fees  DOFFER Unloaded full bobbins from a spinning machine  DOG LEECH Veterinarian  DOG-WHIPPER Drove dogs away in a village (modern day dog catcher)  DOMESMAN Judge or umpire  DOMESTIC Household servant  DOOR KEEPER Guard, janitor, or porter  DOUBLER Operated a machine used to twist together strands of fibre (cotton, wool etc)  DOWSER or DIVINER Water finder  DRAGMAN A fisherman who used a dragnet. A net that is dragged along the bottom of the sea.  DRAGOON A mounted soldier who carried an infantry weapon such as a `dragon` or short musket,  DRAGSMAN The driver of a drag or coach. A thief who follows carriages to cut away luggage from behind. One engaged in dragging a a river, lake, pond, harbor, or the like, in search of something.  DRAPER Dealer in fabrics and sewing needs  DRAWBOY Weavers assistant in the shawl making mills , they sat atop the looms and lifted the heavy warps.  DRAWER The person who was employed by the collier (mines) to take full tubs from the workplace to the haulage and bring back empty tubs  DRAYMAN: Cart driver  DREDGERMAN or DREDGER One engaged in dredging. (To clean out by means of a dredge - net)  DRESSER One who dresses another. A surgeon's assistant. Also one who operated a machine which prepared threads in the textile industry  DRIFT MAKER Made drift nets, used in the fishing industry  DRIPPING MAN Dealer in dripping - the fat collected during the cooking of meats. Often used to roast potatoes or spread on bread with salt to make a 'dripping butty'.  DRIVER Slave overseer  DROVER Sheep or cattle driver  DROWNER (Also known as a Waterman) A man who understood irrigation. He was appointed to control the watering of the common water meadows, especially in Dorset, Wiltshire, Avon and Hampshire.  DRUMMER Traveling salesman - as in 'to drum up sales'  DRY SALTER A dealer in salted or dried meats, pickles, sauces, etc. Or a dealer in dyestuffs, chemical products / preparations. Drysalters usually sold a number of saline substances and miscellaneous drugs.  DRY STONE WALLER Built stone walls. (Mostly farmers wanting to restrict their livestock) No cement or mortar was used just stones of varying sizes that they fitted together to make a substantial wall.  DUBBERE A cloth dubber - , one who raises the nap of cloth  DUFFER Peddler or hawker of cheap goods. Especially one who takes orders for dress goods by samples. Also one who sells spurious or flashy articles represented as stolen or smuggled.  DUSTMAN or DUSTBIN MAN A collecter/remover of domestic refuse, ashes etc.  DYER Employed in the textile mills to colour fabric prior to weaving 

EARER A ploughman or tiller  EARTH STOPPER One who plugs up animal holes e.g. rabbits, badgers, foxes  EBONITE TURNER One who worked with ebonite or vulcanite, making combs or ornaments etc  EGG FACTOR or EGGLER One who gathers, or deals in, eggs. Egg or poultry dealer  ELEPHANTS TEETH DEALER One who dealt in ivory ornaments etc  EMBOSSER A person who moulded or carved designs that were raised above the surface of the material  EMPRESARIO or IMPRESARIO (Former USA) Land broker, settlement scheme promoter, ( Latter UK) showman, organiser of concerts / festivals, Entrepreneur  ENGINE DRIVER Train driver  ENGINE MAN Employed at a mine to be in charge of the machinery used to crush the ore  ENGINE TENTER or TENTER Someone who is in charge of machinery, usually in a factory. The word is closely related to the word "tend" so he is someone who "tends, or looks after” the engine.  ENSIGN A naval commissioned officer  ENUMERATOR One who collected the information for the census from the householder and recorded it  EQUERRY Officer of the royal household usually responsible for the royal horses  EREMITE or HERMIT A person who chooses to live a solitary life  ESQUIRE A man of standing in society. (Originaly one who attended a knight)  ESTAFETTE or EXPRESSMAN Express courier - usually military. A special messenger who delivered goods quickly.  EWE HERD Shepherd  EWER Water carrier. Man who came round with water.  EXCHEQUER Revenue collector  EXCISEMAN Excise tax collector  EYER or HOLER Maker of eyes in sewing needles 

FABER A skilled workman -carpenter, wheelwright, shipwright (Quite often working with wood). Skilled artisan  FABRICATOR A maker of a product - to fabricate something e.g. metalworker, woodworker, ironworker  FACTOR A person who acts for another, notably a mercantile and/or colonial agent. Also a Scottish term for an estate steward responsible for collecting land rents.  FAGETTER Made up faggots into bundles, seller of firewood  FAGOT A man formerly hired to fill a vacancy in a military company on a muster day.  FAKER A person who dressed up black and white photographs by a hand in colour before colour film was available. Photographic assistant  FALCONER or FAWKNER Trainer / handler of falcons - birds used for hunting. A person skilled in the art of falconry  FANCY MAN A pimp. An agent for prostitutes who collects part of their earnings for services rendered.  FANCY PEARL WORKER Made fancy goods in mother-of-pearl  FANCY WOMAN A prostitute. Offering sexual favours for money  FANNER See grain winnower  FANWRIGHT A maker and repairer of fans or winnowing baskets  FARMER Farmers work the land, either arigulturaly or with livestock. In the past they were usually descendants of gentry and noble classes. Besides farm workers they often having servants.  FARRIER or FERROUR Horse shoer -often referred to as a blacksmith  FAWKNER Trainer of falcons  FEAR NOTHING MAKER A weaver of special kind of strong thick woollen cloth known as fearnought (or dreadnought) - a heavy overcoating that is made of wool often mixed with shoddy. Used as protective clothing, also as lining for portholes, walls, and doors of powder magazines on board ships.  FEATHER BEATER or FEATHER DRIVER Cleaner of feathers  FEATHER-DRESSER One who prepared feathers for sale  FEATHERMAN Agent who dealt in feathers  FELL MONGER A dealer in fells or hide. Someone who sells or works with animal hides and skins. A dealer in fells or sheepskins, who separates the wool from the pelts  FELLER Woodcutter  FELTER Worker in the hatting industry  FERONER See Ironmonger  FERRETER A manufacturer or trader dealing in ferret - a narrow piece of tape used to bind or edge fabric. Or a ferret keeper/dealer  FETTLER Someone who keeps things in good order (fettle), neat and tidy. Applied to several occupations such as; one who cleaned the machinery in woollen mills, removing accumulated fibres, grease, etc. One who sharpened the fustian cutters knives or needlemaker who filed the needle to a point. One who grinds and sands ceramic products (eg tiles) to remove defects or rough spots. This could be done using wire or stiff brush or power grinder. Smooths (fettles) edges and surface of product, using sandpaper or handstone. Discards broken or poorly pressed tile. Stacks ceramic tile or clay slates in specified pattern on boards, plates, trays, or in saggers. May measure dimensions of tile for conformance to specifications, using gauge. May tend machine that automatically fettles tile.  FEWSTER A worker in wood, and specifically one who made the wooden framework of the saddle-tree - the wooden frame part of the horse saddle before being covered with stretched leather  FEWTERER or FEUTERER A keeper of hounds, for hunting or coursing  FIDDLER A person who used a small knife (fiddle) to remove the flashing from cast clay forms such as bowl, creamers, cups or pitchers. Pottery occupation  FILE CUTTER A maker of files, which also involved the cutting of grooves on the file surface  FILIBUSTER A lawless military adventurer, especially one in quest of plunder; a freebooter.  FILLER Person who filled bobbins in mills  FINE DRAWER Invisible mending. A person employed in tailoring to repair tears in the cloth.  FINISHER Operated machine giving final touches to a manufactured article in various trades  FIREBEATER Looked after the boilers that powered the cotton mill machinery  FIREMAN inspected for, and removed explosive gasses underground in mining or stoked the boilers on ships and locomotives  FISH FAG A female fish monger  FISHER or FISHDRYVER A provider of fish (especially dried fish)  FISHMONGER A seller of fish - usually via a shop  FITTER One who fits or adjusts. Eg clothing, machinery, gas etc  FLASHER Specialist process worker in the glass industry  FLATMAN or FLOATMAN Person who navigated a flat, a broad flat-bottomed boat used for transport, especially in shallow waters  FLAXDRESSER Prepared flax prior to spinning  FLESHEWER Butcher  FLESHMONGER or FLESHER Butcher or a person who worked in a tannery  FLETCHER Arrowsmith (from French fleche)  FLOATER A person who irrigates or floods land to regulate its water content - eg marshes, fields, watermeadows  FLOGGER To flog. Door to door salesman, peddler  FLOWER GIRL or FLOWER WOMAN Female who sold flowers on the street  FLUSHERMAN A person who cleaned out water mains  FLYCOACHMAN A driver of one-horse carriage hired by the day  FLYING STATIONER A street broadsheet seller  FLYMAN One who drives a fly (a single horse carriage). One who works the ropes in the flies of a theater  FOOT MAIDEN Female servant  FOOT PAD A thief who preys on pedestrians. A highywayman who robs on foot.  FOOT POST Messenger who travelled on foot delivering letters  FOOT STRAIGHTENER Watchmaking industry. One who straightens timepiece dial, holding feet by using holding device and gauge  FOOTMAN Servant who ran errands  FORESTER Game warden or forest ranger  FORGEMAN Blacksmith or assistant  FORGER Blacksmith, worker at a forge  FOSSETMAKER Man who made faucets for ale-casks, etc  FOWER One who cleans (fows); as in cooking utensils or house maintenance or street cleaner  FOWLER or FOGLER or FUGLER Keeper or catcher of birds  FRAME SPINNER Loom worker  FRAMEWORKER KNITTER An operator of hosiery machinery  FRESHWATER MAN Boatman who plied his trade via fresh water (rivers)  FRISEUR A hairdresser  FRUITERER Fruit seller  FRUITESTERE Female fruit seller  FULLER Fabric worker who shrinks, beats and presses the cloth (also see WALKER)  FUNAMBULIST A tightrope walker  FURBISHER One who or that which furbishes, or makes bright by rubbing; one who or that which cleans or polishes. E.g. sword cutler, who finishes sword blades and similar weapons. A polisher.  FURRIER A worker, seller or producer of furs 

GABELER Tax collector. A collector of gabels or taxes.  GAFFER Foreman of a work crew. Or in glass factory, one who smoothed, reheated the neck of and formed lip on a bottle  GAGER An exciseman. Collector of liquor taxes. One who gages (gauges); specifically, an officer whose business is to ascertain the contents of casks and other hollow vessels.  GALVANISER Iron worker who handled process of coating metal with zinc, to inhibit formation of rust  GAMESTER Gambler or prostitute  GANGER Overseer or foreman  GANGSMAN or GAFFER Foreman  GAOLER Jailer, prison officer  GARLEKMONGER or GARLICMONGER Dealer in garlic  GARTHMAN The proprietor of an open weir for taking fish. Owner or worker of a fish trap.  GAS MANAGER Mining occupation: Forman in charge of checking for poisonous gas in coal mine shafts  GATER Watchman, Security  GATHERER Glassworker who inserted the blow iron into the molten glass ready for the blower  GATHERERS BOY Held a shovel to shield the gatherer's face from the heat  GAUGER Customs duty officer who measured the capacity of imported barrels of liquor in order to calculate the payable duty  GAUNTER Maker of gloves  GAVELLER or GAVELMAN or GAVELKINDER "Someone who pays gavel for rented land. In coal-mining, the agent of the crown having the power to grant gales to the free miners. A harvest worker, usually female. "  GELDER Castrator of animals, especially horses  GEOMETER Trained in geometry  GILDER Applies gold leaf to objects such as books, ornaments, jewellery, pottery etc,  GIRDLER Maker of leather belts and girdles, mostly for the forces  GLASSWRIGHT A glassmaker and mender of glassware  GLAZIER A glass cutter or window glassman  GLOVER Someone who makes or sells gloves  GOLD BEATER Beats gold into a specific shape  GOLDSMITH A person who makes gold articles. Or a banker  GOOSE HERD One who looks after geese  GORZEMAN A seller of gorse or broom  GRACE-WIFE Midwife - nurse who delivers babies  GRAFFER Notary or scrivener (legal document writer / lawyer)  GRAIN WINNOWER An agricultural worker who separated the grain from chaff. The method of winnowning was also used to remove weevils or other pests from stored grain.  GRAINER Painted grain on wood to make it look good  GRANGER Farmer  GRAVER Engraver, carver, sculptor. Or a dockside worker who burned and tarred the underneath of ships to clean them  GRAZIER A rancher who grazes cattle or sheep for market  GREEN GROCER A fruit and vegetable seller, usually with stalls set up outside the shop  GREENSMITH Worker in copper or latten ( a kind of brass type alloy hammered into thin sheets)  GREEVE or GRIEVE or GREAVE Overseer, steward, Bailiff, foreman, sheriff  GRIMBRIBBER Lawyer  GROOVER A miner  GUINEA PIG (Slang) A person rendering services more or less for a nominal fee of a guinea e.g. company director, juryman, deputy clergyman, officer on special duty  GUMMER A workman whose business it is to use the gummer in widening the spaces between the teeth of a saw. A person who improved old saws by deepening the cuts.  GUNPOWDER MAKER Made gunpowder in a gunpowder mill  GUTTA-PERCHA MANUFACTURER Makes a white to brown substance resemblimg rubber but containing more resin (Latex). Often used in dentistry and insulation. 

HABERDASHER Dealer in small wares; tapes, pins needles, thread, linen.(Formerly also hats)  HACK A person who hires himself out for any sort of literary work  HACKER or HACKNEY MAN A man who lets out horses  HACKLER or HACKMAN or HECKLER One who separated the coarse part of flax or hemp with a hackle, an instrument with teeth in the linen industry  HAIR SEATING MERCHANT Dealer in horse-hair stuffing used in upholstery  HALBERT CARRIER A soldier or halberdier, armed with a halberd, a combination spear and battleaxe (a ceremonial officer)  HAMMERMAN Hammerer, a blacksmith or whitesmith  HAND FLOWERER Ladies living mainly in rural locations who embroidered flowers or similar designs on muslin or cambric  HANDLE STICKER Put handles on cast ceramic cups, pitchers, etc  HANDSELLER or STREET SELLER Person who sold their wares in the street. Street vendor  HANDWOMAN A handmaid. Female attendant  HANGER-ON or HOOKER-ON or ONSETTER Mining industry. Hung corves (originally baskets) on rope at the pit-bottom  HANKYMAN A travelling magician in Victorian/Edwardian England  HARBOUR PILOT A person who directs or steers ships into the harbour.  HARLOT A vagabond, beggar, rogue.  HARMER BECK A parish constable or beadle  HARPER Harp player  HATCHLER A person who combed out or carded flax  HATTER A maker or dealer in hats  HAWKER or HUCKSTER Peddler  HAY COLLECTORS Collected hay ready for sale to stables dairies, horses and cows. Often transported by canal  HAYBINDERS Bound hay ready for collection  HAYMONGER A dealer in hay  HAYWARD A parish or town officer in charge of fences, enclosuers, commons etc, and who is responsible for the impounding of stray cattle etc.  HEADSMAN One who cuts off heads. Executioner. A labourer who conveys coal from the work face to the horseway. Also pertaining to whaling and is the man who takes charge of the boat after the whale has been struck.  HECK MAKER A maker of a part of a spinning machine by which the yarn is guided to the reels  HEDGE LOOKER Supervised repairs of fence and enclosures  HEDGER Hedge cutter/ trimmer  HEELMAKER Made shoe heels  HELLIER or HILLIER or HILLARD A roofer; a tiler or slater.  HENCHMAN or HENSMAN A squire, a page, a servant, a groom, a footman or an attendant.  HENTER or HENDER A person who seizes or gets possession of something. Eg baliff, or thief  HEWER A mine face worker who cut coal  HIGGLER A person who haggles or bargains or an itinerant dealer, similar to a cadger  HIGHWAYMAN Robber, thief, who preys on public roads  HIND Farm servant. Agricultural worker. One in charge of two horses and alloted a house on a farm. A rustic, a peasant, a boor, a menial  HIRED MAN A person who hires themselves out - e.g. gardener, farmhand, or labourer  HODSMAN or HODCARRIER A labourer who carried bricks or mortar in a hob  HOGGARD Pig drover  HONEY DIPPER (slang) A person who collects household sewage. A person who extracted raw sewage from catch basins and out-houses  HOOFER A professional dancer, especially a tap dancer.  HOOKER A worker that hooks or uses hooks e.g. In woolen, cotton industry  HOOPER Makes hoops for casks  HORNER Worker using horn to make items such as spoons, combs, or musical horns  HORSE COURSER Race horse owner  HORSE KNAVE Groom  HORSE LEECH Veterinarian, farrier  HORSE MARINE Man-handling barges on canals where horses can't be used, e.g. Long tunnels  HORSE-CAPPER A dealer who sells worthless horses for good prices.  HOSIER Retailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps  HOSTELLER Innkeeper  HOSTLER or OSTLER Cares for horses, stableman, groom, repairer or railway engines  HOTPRESSER A worker in paper or textile industries where product was pressed between glazed boards and hot metal plates to obtain a smooth and shiny surface  HOUSE JOINER House framer  HOUSEWRIGHT House builder  HOWDY or HOWDIE A midwife (chiefly used in Scotland)  HOYMAN A person who carries goods and passengers by water on a hoy (type of boat)  HUCKSTER Seller of small wares  HURDLEMAN A man in charge of a hurdle (fence) or fold; specifically, a keeper of new-born lambs  HURRIER One who draws a corf or wagon in a coal-mine. A young boy or girl employed in a coal mine to drag baskets or small wagons full of coal from the coal face where it was mined, up to the surface.  HUSBANDMAN A tenant farmer  HUSH SHOP KEEPER Person who brewed and sold beer without a license (usually as a side line) 

ICEMAN A seller or deliverer of ice  IDLEMAN: A gentleman of leisure  INFIRMARIAN Person in charge of an infirmary  INTENDENT Director of a public or government business  INTERFACTOR Murderer  IRON FOUNDER A person who made iron castings.  IRON MONGER Dealer in hardware made of iron  IRON TURNER An iron turner was a metal machinist. The lathes were driven by a belt attached to a pulley wheel on a line shaft up at ceiling level which was driven by an engine. The 'Turners' turned (machined) cast iron, brass and bronze castings.  IVORY WORKERS Makers of combs, boxes, billard balls, buttons, and keys for pianofortes in ivory 

JACK Lumberjack, young male assistant, sailor  JACK-FRAME TENTER A cotton industry worker who operated a jack-frame, used for twisting thread  JACK-SMITH A maker of lifting machinery and contrivances  JAGGER A carrier, carter, pedlar or hawker of fish; 19th century, young boy in charge of 'jags'or train of trucks in coal mine; man in charge of pack horse carrying iron ore to be smelted  JAKES-FARMER One who emptied cesspools or cesspits. One who contracted to clean out privies; a scavenger.  JAPANNER One who applies a hard brilliant coat of any of several varnishes to objects  JERQUER A customhouse officer who searches ships for unentered goods.  JERSEY COMBER A worker in woollen manufacture (Jersey: wool which has been combed but not spun into yarn)  JIGGERMAN Operated a spinning wheel (Jigger) to form the foot (back side) of a ceramic plate  JOBBER One that buys merchandise from manufacturers and sells it to retailers. One that works by the piece (piecework)or at odd jobs. A middleman in the exchange of stocks and securities among brokers. One who does small jobs or chance work.  JOBMASTER A person who supplied horses and carriages and drivers for hire  JONGLEUR A wandering minstrel, poet, or entertainer, who went from place to place singing songs, generally of his own composition and to his own accompaniment  JOURNEYMAN or JORMAN A master craftsman. One who served his apprenticeship and mastered his craft; properly, one who no longer is bound to serve for years but is hired day to day (Often self employed)  JOYNER or JOINER Carpenter 

KEDGER Fisherman  KEEKER or WEIGHMAN A colliery official who checked quantity and quality of coal output  KEELER or KEELMAN Bargeman (from keel, a flat bottomed boat)  KEEPER An attendant, a guard, a warden,or gamekeeper. A person who of anything. E.g. One who keeps control of the quantities of ore and fuel, regulated the blast and tapped the molten metal from the furnace.  KEMPSTER Wool comber  KIDDIER Skinner or dealer in young goats  KILNER Limeburner, in charge of a kiln  KISSER A person who made cuishes and high armour  KNACKER A harness maker, buyer of old horses and dead animals. 'Knacker's Yard'  KNAPPERS A person who dressed and shaped flints into required shape and size  KNOCKER-UP or KNOCKER-UPPER Person paid to wake up northern mill and factory workers on early shifts  KNOLLER Toller of bells 

LACE-DRAWER A child employed in lace work, drawing out threads  LACEMAN A dealer in lace, who collected it from the makers, usually only those who had bought his thread, and sold it in the lace markets  LACE-MASTER or MISTRESS A man who employed workers in factories or in their homes for the production of lace  LACE-RUNNER A young worker who embroidered patterns on lace  LAGGER Sailor. One who installs lagging.  LAMPLIGHTER A man who would put out or turn on, the gas street-lights.  LANDWAITER Customs officer who checked landed goods  LARDNER Keeper of the cupboard / larder  LASTER One who worked or shaped shoes on a last (the mould of the human foot made of wood and used to shape footwear).  LATH RENDER A person who split wood into lath. These thin strips of wood would often be used for lath and plaster walls, to form lattice-work, or for blinds or shutters.  LATTENER Brass worker. A worker in latten  LAUNDERER Washer of clothes  LAVENDER A washer; a washerwoman; a laundress.  LAYER A worker in paper mill responsible for a particular stage in paper-making process  LEAVELOOKER A municipal inspector of markets in an English town (as in Lancashire) - an examiner of food on sale at market  LEECH or SAWBONES Physician, doctor  LEGERDEMAINIST A person who practices or performs sleight of hand. Magician  LEGGER A man employed by the owners of a canal to push boats through narrow canal tunnels. The legger would lie on his back on a piece of wood on the boat with his feet reaching to the tunnel wall, and walk it along. This could be done by the boat's crew, but the canals employed men specifically for the task because they could do it faster and prevent a tunnel becoming a bottleneck for traffic  LEIGHTONWARD A gardener  LIGHTERMAN Someone who operates a flat bottomed boat used in loading or unloading ships.  LIMNER One who limns; an artist or delineator; more especially, one who paints portraits or miniatures.  LINENER A dealer in linen; a linen draper. A shirtmaker.  LINER or LYNER One that makes or puts in linings.  LINKERBOY or LINKERMAN One who carried a link or torch to guide people through city streets at night for a small fee.  LISTER or LITSTER A preaching friar; a lector. A person that creates or maintains lists.  LITTER BEARER The carriers of an enclosed or curtained couch mounted on shafts and used to carry a single passenger.  LOADSMAN A ship's pilot  LOBLOLLY BOY or LOBLOLLY MAN In 18th and 19th century warships, a non-professional assistant to the ship's surgeon, or errand boy  LOCK KEEPER An overseer of canal locks  LONG SONG SELLER A street seller who sold popular songsheets printed on paper  LONGSHOREMAN A stevedore  LORIMER or LORINER A maker of small iron work - e.g. horse gear; bits, spurs, stirrup-irons and other horse equipment  LUMPER A laborer employed to load and unload vessels in port; a dock-hand; a longshoreman; a stevedore.  LUTHIER A maker and repairer of stringed musical instruments 

MAID A female domestic servant  MALSTER A brewer, maker or seller of malts  MANCIPLE A steward or purchaser of provisions, as for a monastery or college, or inn or court  MANGLE KEEPER A woman who offered use of the mangle for a fee  MANGLER Works a mangle for pressing water out of clothes (Wringer)  MARBLER One who stained paper or other material, veined in imitation of marble  MARSHALL A military officer of the highest rank in some countries.  MARSHMAN A person paid by various landowners to look after marshlands and tend the animals put to graze there for the season  MASHMAKER Brewing industry. A maker of the mash-vats or mashels used for mixing malt  MASON A stonecutter  MASTER One of three grades of skill recognised by the Guild of Crafts  MASTER COACH PAINTER A person who painted the inside and outside of railway coaches. Usually highly skilled decorative work, sometimes including artwork gilding.  MASTER MARINER A ship's captain  MEALMAN A dealer in meal or flour  MELDER A corn miller  MERCATOR A merchant  MERCER A cloth seller  METALMAN A man employed to service the tunnels and rails in the haulage system of the mine.  METERER One who writes in metre; a poet.  MIDWIFE An experienced nurse specialising in child birth  MILESMAN or LENGTHSMAN A railway worker who had a set length of railway track to keep in good order  MILLER A corn miller, cloth miller, saw miller  MILLERESS Female miller  MILLERS CARMAN One who drove carrier to deliver the flour or seed to the customers  MILLINER A maker of hats  MILLWRIGHT A designer and builder of mills or mill machinery  MINER A worker in mines (most commonly refers to coal pit). Coal miner. Collier.  MINTMAKER or MINTMASTER An issuer of local currency  MONGER Dealer  MONTHLY NURSE Someone who assisted women during the first month after giving birth  MOULD BOY One who held the mould for glassblower, also weighed the bottles  MOULDER A maker of molds or castings, brickmaker  MOUNTEBANK A hawker of quack medicines who attracts customers with stories, jokes, or tricks. A quack doctor. A charlatan  MUDLARK A sewer cleaner or riverbank scavenger - one who scavenges in river mud for items of value, especially in London during the Industrial Revolution.  MUFFIN MAKER A baker who made muffins (barmcakes, oven bottoms)  MUFFIN MAN An itinerant seller of muffins  MUGSELLER A seller of cups, mugs  MULE MINDER A minder of the spinning mules in the cotton mills  MULETEER A mule driver  MULTURER A person who has grain ground at a certain mill. Multurers are or were of two kinds — first, such as were thirled (thralled) to a certain mill by the conditions on which they occupied their land; and, second, those who used the mill without being bound by the tenure to do so. The former were termed insucken multurers, the latter outsucken multurers.(German) MUSTARDER or MUSTARDMAN One who made and dealt in mustard

NAGSMAN A person who schools horses, usually for his employer NARROW WEAVER A weaver of ribbons, tapes, etc  NAVIGATOR A person who navigates e.g waterways, seas and oceans  NAVVY A labourer building canals, roads or railways  NEATHERD A person who has the care of cattle; a cow-keeper.  NECESSARY WOMAN A servant responsible for emptying and cleaning chamber pots  NEDELLER A needle maker  NETTER A net maker  NIGHT SOILMAN or NIGHTMAN One who emptied cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets  NIGHTWALKER A watchman or bellman  NIPPER A lorry boy, a young person employed by the carter or wagoner to assist with the collection and delivery of goods  NOB THATCHER A wig maker  NOTERER A notary 

OILMAN One who deals in oils; one who is engaged in the business of producing or of selling oil. One who sold oil specifically used for lamps. A retailer who sells vegetable oils, and food preserved in oil. A person who sold the oil for lamps  ORDERLY A soldier who functioned as a servant for an officer  ORRICE WEAVER A designer of lace patterns to be woven with silk thread and silk  OSIER PEELER or WITHY PEELER Person who removed bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving, usually women and children  OSTLER Originally applied to an innkeeper/taverner or one who received guests especially in an monastery (13th century) but later on it came to mean stableboy or a person who looked after horses, coming from the old French 'hostelier'  OUT CRIER An auctioneer  OUTWORKER A worker who carried on their occupation at home, e.g., cotton or woollen weavers but it applies to many occupations  OVERLOOKER A superintendent or overseer, especially in the textile mills  OVERMAN An official below Undermanager but above Deputy in mining who checked the miners work and the quality of the mined coal  OWLER A sheep or wool smuggler  OYSTER DREDGER A member of the crew on board an oyster fishing boat 

PACK THREAD SPINNER Operator of the machine which made thread or twine  PACKER A packer of goods such as pickles or herring  PACKMAN A person who travels with a pack, especially a travelling salesman.  PAINT STAINER A person who hand-printed wallpaper and usually offered a paper-hanging service as well.  PAINTRESS A woman employed in the pottery industry to hand paint the finished articles  PANNIER A robed waiter  PANTER Keeper of the pantry  PANTLER The servant in charge of the bread and the pantry in a great house  PAPER IRONER or TIMES IRONER A servant responsible for ironing the daily newspaper  PAPER RULER Operated a machine in the 19th century printing industry who was a skilled worker/operator who set up several inking pens in a machine,by the same name, designed to draw or ink lines on paper  PAPERER One whose occupation is decorating walls with wallpaper.  PARFUMIER or PERFUMER A manufacturer and purveyor of scents such as perfumes, colognes and even incense  PARGETER One who pargets; a plasterer - walls, ornamental reliefs, chimneys  PARITOR A church officer who attended the magistrates and justices at court for the pupose of executing their orders  PASSAGE KEEPER A person who kept passages and alleys clean  PASTELER A pastry chef  PASTOR The word pastor usually refers to an ordained leader of a Christian congregation  PATTEN MAKER A clog or shoemaker.  PAVER or PAVIOUR A person who laid paving stones  PEDASCULE A schoolmaster. One who educates, guides, or instructs  PEELER The first policemen in London  PELTERER A person who worked with animal skins  PESSONER A fisherman or fishmonger  PEWTERER Someone who made pewter utensils  PHLEBOTOMIST A person who practices the opening of a vein for letting blood. (see bloodletter)  PHRENOLOGIST A diviner of a person's character based on the bumps on a person's head  PICKER or PICKER MAKER A person who cast the shuttle on a loom. Made the "Pickers" — strong, leather attachments fitted to each side of a weaving loom, to drive the shuttle across the loom.  PIECENER or PIECER Someone who worked in a spinning mill, employed to piece together any threads which broke (usually a child or woman)  PIGMAN A farm worker who looks after pigs. One who sold crockery  PIKELET MAKER A baker who specialised in making pikelets (a small teacake or crumpet)  PIKEMAN A miner who works with a pike or crowbar. A keeper of a turnpike gate. A solider armed with a pike.  PIKER A cautious gambler. A tramp or vagrant  PILOT A ship steersman  PIMP An agent for prostitutes who collects part of their earnings  PIMPMAKER or BAVIN MAKER A man who made up bundles of waste wood in coppices or forests to be sold for use as fuel. (Bundles of Kindling or firewood.)  PINDER An officer appointed by a parish to impound stray beasts - e.g. dogs, cattle.  PINNER A pin maker  PIPER One who plays upon a pipe - especially a strolling player, or the bagpipes.  PIRN WINDER Someone who wound the yarn onto large wheel like bobbins which were then ready to feed the looms in a cotton mill  PIT BROW LASS A female worker who worked on the surface of the mine sorting coal  PITMAN A coal miner  PLAIN WORKER One who performed plain sewing or needlework as opposed to an embroiderer  PLAITER A person that plaits or braids; especially, an implement for producing plaits of regular size, as in cloth. A maker of straw plaits used in the making hats etc  PLANKER One who planks or kneads the body of the hat during felting  PLANTER Someone who plants - specifically a pioneer colonist. Or an owner of a plantation  PLATELAYER A railway employee who inspects and maintains the permanent way of a railway installation.  PLEACHER or PLAICHER or PLATCHER or PLASHER To plait or interlace (branches or vines, for example), especially in making a hedge or an arbor. A hedge layer  PLOUGHMAN or PLOWMAN A farmer or farm worker  PLOWWRIGHT or PLOUGHWRIGHT A maker or repairer of plows  PLUMASSIER or PLUMER A person who makes ornamental feathers  PLUMBUM WORKER A plumber  POINTER A person who sharpened needles or pins or lace maker  POINTMAKER or POINTMAN Someone who made the tips of laces  POINTSMAN or SIGNALMAN A railway worker who operated the points (and / or signals), that changed the line on which the train was travelling  POLDAVE WORKER: One who made poldave, a coarse fabric  POLEMAN A surveyor's assistant  POLLER or POWLER One who shaves persons or cuts their hair; a barber; a hair-dresser.  PONY DRIVER A person (usually a boy) in charge of a pony which pulled coal tubs along the haulage roads.  PORTER A door or gatekeeper  POST BOY A person who carried mail from town to town, guard who travelled on the mail coach or outrider who travelled with the stagecoach as a postillion  POSTER One that posts bills or notices.  POSTILLION One who rides the near horse of the leaders when four or more horses are used in a carriage or post-chaise, or who rides the near horse when one pair only is used and there is no driver on the box.  POT BOY or POT MAN One who worked in public houses collecting and washing dirty pots also did other menial tasks  POTATO BADGER A seller of potatoes  POTTER A maker or seller of pottery POTTER THROWER A potter who used a wheel and therefore had to throw the clay POULTER A seller of poultry POWER LOOM TUNER One who maintained the loom in mills  PRECEPTRESS A female instructor or teacher  PRENTIS An apprentice  PRINTER'S DEVIL Printer's errand boy. A printer's devil was an apprentice in a printing establishment who performed a number of tasks, such as mixing tubs of ink and fetching type  PROCTOR A supervisor especially of an examination or dormitory in a school.  PROP BOBBY A person who worked in mines checking the pit props  PROPMAN Carpenter / Joiner who cut and fixed the props in the mine to shore up the roof and sides of the pit.  PROSTITUTE A person (usually a woman) offering sexual favours for money  PUBLICAN An innkeeper  PUDDLER An iron foundry worker. Or a man who worked clay into 'puddle', to make things water tight e.g. canal walls  PUG MILL OPERATOR Man who operated a machine for mixing clay and water which then produced a pug of clay  PUMPMAKER Denotes a maker of canal locks  PUREFINDER or PURE GATHERER or PUERFINDER Old women and young girls who collected dog droppings from the streets for use in the tanning industry. In tanning, an infusion of the dung of dogs, fowls, or pigeons, used to soften the skins after liming and preparatory to tanning. Also known as bate. The soaking in such an infusion is called puering or bating.  PURSER A ship's officer in charge of provisions & accounts 

QUARREL PICKER A glazier  QUARRIER or QUARRYMAN A quarry worker  QUILLER: One who operated a machine that wound yarn onto spools  QUILTER or QUILTRESS One who makes quilted items 

RACK MAIDEN A girl employed in the tin mines of Cornwall to dress the ore  RAFF MERCHANT A seller of fibre used to make raffia bags etc  RAFFMAN One who dealt in raff (saleable rubbish)  RAFTER One who is employed in rafting timber, or transporting it in rafts, as from a ship to the shore.  RAG AND BONE MAN or RAG TROTTER One who went from street to street with a cart collecting any old rubbish, usually in exchange for a small item, e.g. a block of soapstone (also known as donkey stone) which women used to put on their frontdoor step  RAG CUTTER One who cut up rags into small pieces to be used for making paper etc  RAG GATHERERS Employed to clear the rags from the machinery in the mills (usually children)  RAG MAN One who went from street to street collecting and selling old clothes and rags  RAG PICKER Someone who sorted through the left over rags to find re usable ones  RAKER A street-cleaner or scavenger.  RATONER or RATTENER A ratter or rat-catcher.  RECTIFIER One who distilled alcoholic spirits  REDSMAN or REDDSMAN or REDESMAN Person who was employed in maintaining mine haulage ways  REDSMITH or COPPERSMITH A person who worked with copper.  REEDER One who worked with reeds for hedging or thatching  REEDMAKER One who made the pipe for a musical instrument or made a weavers implement (a reed) or reed cloth or the comb used in tapestry  REELER One who operated the machine that wound the yarn onto the bobbin  REEVER One who was a clerk or scribe.  REGISTRAR An official who registered events such as land purchases, births, deaths, marriages etc  RELIEVING OFFICER These were officials of the Workhouse who were responsible for assessing the poor of their districts for eligibility for assistance.  RENOVATOR One who repaired clothing  RENT MAN Collector of rents for landlord  REVENUER or REVENUE OFFICER A taxman who enforces tax laws  RIGGER A hoist tackle worker; works on a ship's rigging  RIPPER One who brings fish inland from the coast to market  RIVERMAN A worker on a river boat  ROCKMAN A person who worked in a quarry usually placing the charges on the rockface  RODMAN A surveyor's assistant  ROLL TURNER A carder of wool, cotton etc into rolls prior to spinning  ROLLER COVERER One who covered the rollers for the spinning process  ROLLEYWAY MAN One who maintained the underground road in the mines  ROMAN CEMENTER or PLASTERER One who worked with roman cement used in stuccoing  ROPER A maker of rope or nets  ROVER An archer or operator of a machine used in cotton mills which prepared the carded fibre into rolls  RUBBLER A person who sorted the small stones in the quarries  RUGMAKER One who makes rugs  RUGMAN A dealer in rugs  RUNNER A smuggler. Messenger and ironically one who worked for the magistrate best remembered as Bow Street Runners  RUSTLER A livestock thief. E.g. Cattle, sheep etc. 

SADDLE TREE MAKER A person who makes the wooden frames for the horse saddle before being covered with leather.  SADDLER One who makes, repairs or sells saddle or other furnishings for horses; harnesses, horse collars, bridles etc.  SAGGAR MAKER or SAGGER MAKER One who made the fireclay containers in which the stoneware was placed ready for firing  SAGGAR MAKER'S BOTTOM KNOCKER The saggar maker's assistant who tapped the bottom off the pots  SALT BOILER One who obtained salt by boiling sea water  SALTER or DRYSALTER or SAUCER One who made or dealt in salt  SANDESMAN An ambassador or messenger  SANDHOG A laborer who works inside a caisson, as in the construction of tunnels underwater.  SANDWICHMAN: A person who wears a sandwich billboard for advertising  SARCINET WEAVER A silk weaver  SAW DOCTOR Made, repaired, maintained and sharpened a wide range of cutting tools and saw blades and also maintained and aligned mechanical parts of a range of production machines  SAWYER A person who saws timber  SAY WEAVER One who made Say, material used for table cloths or bedding  SCAGIOLA MAKER One who made imitation marble  SCHRIMPSCHONGER An artisan who carves in bone, ivory, or wood  SCREENER One who screened the ore at the mines surface  SCRIBBLER Employed in a scribbling mill where the wool was roughly carded before spinning  SCRIBE A clerk  SCRIMER One practised in the use of the sword; a skilful fencer.  SCRIPTURE READER Employed by the local clergy to go from house to house reading parts of the bible to try and encourage people to attend church, also read scriptures during some services  SCRIVENER A clerk, notary, wrote out legal documents  SCRUTINEER One who scrutinizes; specifically, one who acts as an examiner of votes, as at an election, etc., to see if they are valid  SCULLION or SCULLERY MAID Female servant who performed all the menial tasks  SCUTCHER A person that beat flax to soften the straw in the bundles  SEARCHER Customs officer whose business it is to search ships, baggage, goods, etc., for prohibited or undeclared articles liable for duty, etc.  SEDGEMAN The skilled workman who applied sedge (type of grass) which was used as an early roofing material  SEEDSMAN Sower of seeds  SELF ACTING MINDER One in charge of the automatic spinning mule in the mills  SEMPSTER or SEWSTER A man or woman employed in sewing: in early use applied to those who sewed leather as well as cloth.  SEWER HUNTER A scavenger who concentrated on the sewers trying to find valuable objects  SEXTON An employee or officer of a church who cared and upkept church property and sometimes rang bells and dug graves  SHAGREEN CASE MAKER or CASE MAKER Worked with shagreen leather (the skin of a shark, ray etc) or, a granular leather made from horse's or ass's hide.  SHAMBLER A butcher. Slaughterman. (A shamble is a butcher's abattoir)  SHANK MAKER Made shanks of wool SHEARER or SHEARMAN or SHERMAN Removed the fleece from sheep. A shearer (cutter) of cloth or metal. A barber SHEARGRINDER Person who sharpened shears, scissors SHEATH MAKER One who made scabbards for swords SHEEPMAN Sheep herder, shepherd SHEET METAL WORKER A person who fabricates products from all types of sheet metal in a workshop. (Skilled man - a time served apprentice) SHIFTER Miner paid day rate per shift, usually on repair work SHINGLER An occupation in the iron foundries. Shingling was the process of hammering puddled iron and as with many iron-making terms it is derived from the French language in this case the word - cinglage. Can also refer to ' Tin Plate Works' And can also be a roof tiler (roofer) who used wooden tiles (shingles). See Bloomer also. SHIP HUSBAND A repairer of ships while in harbor SHIP MASTER Owner and / or captain of a ship SHIPWRIGHT A constructor or repairer or ships SHOE WIPER or BOOT POLISHER Servant who polished shoes SHOESMITH cobbler, one who shoed horses SHOT FIRER One in charge of blasting in mines or quarries SHUNTER One who moved rolling stock around the railway yards SHUTTLE MAKER One who made the shuttles for the weaving mills SICKLEMAN A reaper SIDESMAN A churchman SILK DRESSER One who prepared the silk for weaving SILK MERCER One who sold cloth and other items made from silk SILK THROWER A worker in the silk industry SILK TWISTER A silk spinner SILKER A person that sewed the ends of the fabric to prvent the layers from separating SILVERSMITH A person who worked with silver SIMPLER One who collects simples, or medicinal plants; a herbalist; a simplist. SINKER (PIT SINKER) A skilled man who was contracted to sink new shafts in mines. SISSOR or CISSOR Tailor SIZER A persion that applied size to cloth or worked in a paper mill SKEINER A worker who winds unfinished cloth into skein form for boiling off SKEPPER or SKELPER or SKEPPRNE or SKEPPERNE A person who makes and sells woven beehives SKINKER One who draws or pours out. A server of drink; the landlord of an alehouse or tavern. (incidently 'Schenken' in Dutch translates as 'Pour Out' and is pronounced skenken) SKINNER A dealer in hides SKIPMAKER: One who made the skips used in mining and quarrying for moving men or materials to the surface SKIPPER A master of a ship SLAPPER or SLAPER One who worked in a pottery preparing the clay for the potter SLATER Roofer SLAYMAKER A maker of slay's - The reed of a weavers' loom SLOPSELLER A dealer in cheap ready-made clothing SLUBBER Operated the machine used to prepare cotton for spinning SLUBBER DOFFER Removed the bobbins from the spindles in the mills SMACKMAN One worked on a sailing ship (a smack, as a sloop or cutter, that was used chiefly in coasting and fishing SMALLWARE MAKER Made smallware, e.g. tapes, braids etc SMELTER Worker in a metal smelter, smelt fisherman SMIDDY Dialectal variant of smithy - A smith SMITH Metal worker SNAPPER Worker in glass factory who placed molded bottle (by neck) into furnace hole SNOB A shoemaker; a journeyman shoemaker SNUFFER MAKER Made the candle snuffer SOAP BOILER (SOPER) Soap maker SOJOURNER CLOTHIER A travelling clothes salesman SOLICITOR Lawyer SORTOR Tailor SOUTER Shoe maker or cobbler in Scotland SPALLIER or SPALDER Tin worker who performs chiefly menial tasks SPICER Grocer or dealer in spices SPINNER Spins yarn SPLITTER Operated a splitting machine or one who split things by hand, e.g. stone, timber etc SPOONER Made spoons SPRING MAKER Maker of springs for coaches etc. SPURRER or SPURRIER A maker of spurs SQUIRE Practitioner of a profession, a gentleman STABLER Ostler STAITHMAN A man employed in weighing and shipping at a staith (a landing place: an elevated staging upon a wharf, bank, shore). STALLMAN Keeper of a market stall STATIONER Bookseller, seller of paper & writing implements STATIST A statesman; a politician; one skilled in government. A statistician STAY MAKER A corset maker STEEPLEJACK One who climbs steeples (churches) etc to do repairs etc. Also commonly employed in the north of England to repair the tall chimneys attached to cotton mills STEERSMAN A ship's helmsman STENTERER One who operated the cloth finishing machine STEP BOY Employed to help passengers to enter or leave the coach STEVEDORE A labourer who unloads and loads ships' cargoes STEWARD Manager of property, purveyor of supplies or someone who attended passengers on conveyance STOCKINGER A knitter, weaver, or dealer in stockings STOKER One who tends the fire of an steam engine boiler originally STONE GETTER Worked in quarry STONE PICKER A man employed to remove the stones from the farmers fields before planting STONE WORKERS A person who worked with stone eg masons, quarriers etc STOREMAN A person responsible for stored goods STOVE GRATE PATTERN MAKER Manufactured and installed stove grates. In 1901 there were many stove grate works. STRAW JOINER One who thatched roofs STRAW PLAITER One who made straw braids for the hat industry STREET ORDERLY Street cleaner STRINGER One who strings. One who makes or furnishes strings for a bow STUFF WEAVER Wove stuff (the coarse part of flax) SUMPTER The driver of a pack horse SUTLER An army camp follower who peddled provisions to the soldiers SWAIN Herdsman SWEEP Chimneysweep SWINEYARD or SWINEHERDER Pig keeper SWINGLER One who beats flax to remove woody parts SWORD CUTLER A sword maker

TABLER One who keeps boarders. TACKLER An overlooker of power loom weavers TACKSMAN A middleman who leased a large piece of land from the owner and sublet it in small lots TAILOR One who made or repaired clothes TALLOW CHANDLER One who made or sold candles TALLY CLERK One who kept count of goods arriving or departing from warehouses, docks etc TALLYMAN or TALLIER One who sells by sample goods to be delivered afterward, or who takes orders for such goods. One who keeps a tally-shop, selling goods on short credit, the accounts of which are kept by a system of tallies, without regular book-accounts TAN BARK STRIPPER One who collected the bark that was used in the tanning process TANNER Tanned (cured) animal hides for leather making TANNEY A leather worker TAPE WEAVER Person who weaves cotton tape - up to a couple of inches wide TAPER WEAVER One who made the wicks for candles TAPITER or TAPICER One who weaves worsted cloth TAPSTER One who puts the tap in an ale cask TAVERNER An innkeeper TAWER or TAWYER One who taws (bleaches) skins; a maker of white leather. THATCHER One who covered roofs with straw or reeds. THIRD-BOROUGH A constable, or an under-constable. TIDE GAUGER or SURVEYOR Person who monitored the state of the tide TIDESMAN or TIDE WAITER A customs official TIEMAKER One who made wooden railway ties TIGER A liveried groom attending a person in a light vehicle TILER: One who put tiles in place either on the roof or floor TILLER A farmer TILLMAN A ploughman TIN BASHER Slang for a Sheet Metal Worker. TIN DRESSER (or copper dresser) Women and younger girls who dressed the ore brought up from underground. It was hard, physical work and a dirty job which took knowledge and considerable concentration. TINCTOR A dyer TINKER A travelling repairman or salesman (not well respected) TINMAN A tinsmith or tinker TINNER Tin miner, tinsmith TINTER OR TEINTER Artists who performs tinting TIPPER or FLETCHER One who put the metal tips on arrows etc TIPSTAFF An officer who bears a staff tipped with metal; a constable. TIREWOMAN A woman employed to dress, or to attend to the dressing or dresses of, others; a lady's-maid; a female dresser in a theater; a tiring-woman TOBACCO SPINNER Maker of cigars TOBBACO PACKER or TOBACCO MOULDER Packed or moulded tobacco leaves TOLLER or TOLLGATE KEEPER or TOLLIE or TOLMAN or TURNPIKE KEEPER Worker at the toll gate to collect fees for use of the road TOOL HELVER Made tool handles TOP SAWYER Upper man in a saw pit TOPMAN Sailor who works in the ship's rigging TOSHER Was someone who scavenged in the sewers, especially in London during the Victorian era TOUCH HOLER One who worked in the gun manufacturing industry TOW CARD MAKER One who made tow cards, used in the textile industry TOWN CHAMBERLAIN One who looked after the towns affairs TOWN CRIER One who made public announcments in the streets TOWNS WAITER Customs man TOZER Worked in the wool mills employed to tose or tease the cloth TRAPPER Employed in the mines to open and shut the doors for the miners TREENAIL MAKER One who made the long wooden pins used in shipbuilding TRIMMER A person who trims a ship by re-arranging its cargo to distribute the weight properly TRIPE DRESSER A butcher . One who prepares tripe for sale. (The lining of the stomach of a ruminant (especially a bovine) used as food) TRONER A weighing official at the markets TROTTER A messenger TUBBER or COOPER One who made tubs and barrels TUBMAN A barrister in the Court of Exchequer in England who had a precedence in motions. TUCKER IN A maid who attended the bedroom and "tucked in the bedclothes" TRUG MAKER One who makes baskets with wooden strips, as in the Sussex Trug. Mostly Sussex, Kent, Surrey and Wiltshire. People used them to carry flowers, grains and for vegetables and fruit gathering. It was Queen Victoria who made them popular as garden accessories after she saw them at the Great Exhibition of 1851 TURNER A lathe worker TURNKEY A prison warden or jail keeper TURNSPIT One who operated the spit handle TWEENIE or TWEENY A servant who works between two others, or assists both. A between-maid, or maidservant who helps the cook as well as the housemai. A maid who worked "between the stairs" she assisted the cooks and the housemaids TWISTER or TWISTERER A person who joined the ends of a fresh beam of threads onto the warp already on the loom. A sitting-down job, sometimes done by people who were crippled.

ULNAGER One appointed to examine the quality of woollen goods to be sold UNDERVIEWER A junior official in charge of mine in 'viewer's' absence UPHOLDER or UNHOLSTERER Furniture seller - mainly chairs and couches

VALET A male servant that attended a nobleman or gentleman VALUATOR One who valued objects VASSAL A servant of the lowest order VATMAN One who put the paper pulp into the moulds in paper-making industry or worked with vats e.g. in beer and wine making VENATOR or VENUR A huntsman VERGER Church official, acting as usher or pew opener VERMIN DESTROYER Rat catcher. Pest controller VICTUALER or VICTUALLER A seller of food/drink - Usually refers to an Innkeeper VINTAGER A harvester of grapes VINTNER or VINTER A wine merchant VULCAN A blacksmith

WABSTER A weaver WAD MAN A person who supplied wadding for packing, stuffing, padding WAGONER Wagon or cart driver WAIN HOUSE PROPRIETOR Owner of a building where wagons could be parked for a fee WAINWRIGHT Builder or repairer of wagons WAITER or TIDE WAITER or CUSTOMS OFFICER One who waited on the tide to collect duty on goods brought in WAITMAN or WATCHMAN Night watchman who guarded the gates of a city, usually marking the hours with the ringing of a small bell WAKER Person whose job was to wake workers in time for early morning work WALKING-STICK FILER One who made walking sticks WALLER One who built walls either brick or dry stone - also a person who worked making coarse salt WARDER Person in charge of prisoners WAREHOUSEMAN A person in charge of a warehouse WARP DRESSER Warping-mill operator. Operated a machine to wind yarn from packages onto reel and from reel onto loom beams to prepare multiple colored warps for weaving WARPER or WARP BEAME A textile worker who arranged the individual yarns which created the "warp" of the fabric upon a large cylinder called a beam. A beamer. A person who set the warp thread on the looms or employed to move boats by hauling on the warps (the ropes attached to the boats) WARRENER In charge of a portion of land used for breeding rabbits and other small game WASTEMAN Checked the old workings for gas and maintaining them in the mines or employed to remove waste WATCH FINISHER Assembled watches and clocks WATCHMAN Town official who guarded the streets at night WATER BAILIFF Official in charge of the fishing rights on a stretch of water WATER CARRIER Carted and sold fresh water WATER LEADER or LEDER or LODER A person who transported and sold fresh drinking water WATERGUARD A customs officer WATERMAN Worked with or on boats usually on rivers WATTLE HURDLE MAKER Made a type of fence / enclosures from wattle to keep sheep in WAY-MAKER One employed to make roads. One who makes a way; a pioneer; a pathfinder. WEAVER A person who runs one or more looms to weave cloth. The more looms, the more money. Weaving is a very noisy operation, leaving many weavers deaf. Whether deaf or not, most weavers will have learned to lip-read since this is the only way to hold a conversation in the weaving shed. WEBSTER Weaver (originally a female weaver) WEIGHER Worked on the docks to weigh the cargo as it was unloaded WELL SINKER Someone who dug wells WELL WRIGHT Made the winding equipment used to raise the bucket in the well WELLMASTER One in charge of the local well with the responsibility of ensuring clean water for the village WET GLOVER Leather glove maker WET NURSE Woman employed to suckle tthe child of another (common practice with the rich) WETTER Dampens paper during the printing process or in the glass industry who detached the glass by wetting WHARFINGER One who owns or manages a wharf. WHEELWRIGHT or WRIGHT A maker of wheels for carts WHEY CUTTER Worker in the cheese industry. WHIFFLER A herald or usher; a person who leads the way, or prepares the way, for another: probably so called because the pipers usually led the procession. WHIPCORD MAKER or WHIPMAKER One who made whips WHIPPER-IN Involved in the hunting on large estates. Managed the hunting hounds and came under the command of the Huntsman. WHITE COOPER One who makes barrels from tin or other light metals WHITE LIMER A person who plastered walls using lime and water plaster WHITE SMITH or WHITESMITH A whitesmith is a person who works with "white" or light-coloured metals such as tin and pewter. Their majority of their work is with cold metal WHITENER or WHITESTER or WHITSTER One who bleached cloth WHITEWASHER Whitewashed the walls of cottages WILLOW PLAITER or WEAVER One who made baskets etc WINDER Either a Beamer, or someone who winds thread onto the spindles used in shuttles WINDSTER Silk winder WOOL DRIVER One who brought the wool to market WOOL FACTOR Wool merchants agent WOOL MAN /WOOL SORTER or STAPLER One who sorted the wool into different grades WOOL WINDER One who made up balls of wool for selling WOOLCOMBER Operated machinery that separates the fibres ready for spinning in woollen industry WOOLEN BILLY PIECER Worked in the woollen mills to piece together the broken yarns WOONTCATCHER A mole catcher (North Staffs dialect "oont" or "woont", meaning mole WRIGHT Builder or repairer. A skilled worker in various trades

XYLOGRAPHER One who used and made wooden blocks used in printing illustrations

YARDMAN A rail, road or yard worker YEARMAN One contracted to work for a year YEOMAN A farmer who owns his own land

ZINCOGRAPHER A designer who etched in relief a pattern on zinc plates used for printing ZOOGRAPHER One who classifies species of animals ZUMOLOGIST One who is skilled in the fermentation of liquors ZYTHEPSARIST A brewer